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        您现在的位置: 全国优秀作文网 >> 教师范文 >> 各类范文 >> 教学范文 >> 正文    用户登录发表作文 新用户注册

        关于初中语文作文教学的几点思考

        作者:王茂光  作文来源:云南省文山州丘北县  更新时间:2014-12-24  
        内容摘要:

        内容摘要:中学语文作文教学一直以来按照命题——指导——批改——讲评的模式来操作,虽有一定积极作用,但随着教育的发展,这一模式日益暴露出其自身弱点,如作者多读者少,教师指导多学生思考少,教师要求单一学生作文缺乏个性等等。在新课改背景下,中学语文作文教学应该有自己的一条出路,如重构学生的思考平台,允许学生展示个性,抒写真性情,达到沟通交流的目的等。

        关键词:四环节模式;思考平台;抒写真情;段落训练;

        在很长一段时期里,我们的语文作文教学一直以来遵循四环节作文教学模式,即命题——指导——批改——讲评,这种模式对培养学生的写作能力有一定的积极作用,但随着时代的发展及人们观念的转变,这种模式逐渐显露出它的不足之处。所以很有必要对这种模式进行一些思考,笔者在自身语文作文教学实践基础上,粗浅分析了它的不足,提出了自己的几点思考,争取在原有模式的基础上有所突破,争取对现有作文教学有所帮助。

        一、四环节作文教学模式的不足

        第一、教师指导能力的欠缺。

        教师指导能力的欠缺不是说教师没有能力指导学生,而是说教师的指导干扰了学生的思路,限制了学生的思考。每个学生都是一个独立的个体,教师不可能完全把握得了学生的特点。所以,在写作文前,教师的统一指挥就显示了教师指导的失误,不等学生思考,教师就提出一堆要求,如结构、语言、立意等。有一位教育家是这样说的:“如果把指导变成喋喋不休的‘帮助’,就可能惊走新颖的形象,吓退学生智慧中所产生的那种独创的有趣的想法。”其次,批阅作文时,由于精力、时间的因素,教师阅读批改量大,每次面对一百多本甚至更多的作文时,难免应付交差,马虎了事,或给个分数:708090;或打个等级:优、良、中、差;或写句评语:主题鲜明、结构完整、语言优美等等。对学生作文的疏漏之处就很难发现,或发现了也无暇顾及,或为了鼓励学生而采取视而不见的态度。第三,讲评作文时,也是泛泛而谈,指出学生共有的优缺点,对个别学生的提醒于肯定很少涉及。当然也有选读范文的时候,但也只是一类作文的代表。

        第二、学生创造想象力的流失。

        曾有这样一个故事,在一次考试中,当问及“雪化了变成什么”时,有一名小学生回答“雪化了变成春天”。结果,老师算他错,因为正确答案是水。这个故事引起很多人的争议。有人认为是学生对,有人认为老师按照答案不给分是正确的,总要有个标准嘛。我个人认为仅因为一个标准而扼杀了这么美妙的想象力是语文教学的悲哀。同样,四环节作文教学模式中,我们的学生就像被牵了鼻子的驴,被老师拉到哪儿算哪儿,学生无需思考,老师会帮他们思考,要写什么,怎么写,结果如何等,都是老师全权代理。而作文是一项创造性活动,没有了创造想象,很难想象作文可以写好。还有另外一个例子:对一个圆圈的想象,小学生的回答异彩纷呈:太阳、月亮、星星、车轮、杯盖、馒头、盘子……可谓天上地下任意而为,而中学生的想象就较单一:数字零、零分等。难道是中学生的智商降低了么?答案是否定的,其中一个原因就是想象力的减弱和流失,当然这不全是语文作文教学使然,可是和我们长期以来对学生想象力的疏忽是有一定关系的。这也可以算作语文作文教学的失误。

        我们的中学语文作文教学应该有一条另外的出路,所以,笔者结合自己的实践对此提出以下几点小小的建议。

        二、中学语文作文教学的思考

        第一、重构学生思考平台。

        首先应注重启发学生去构思而不是规定学生去思考,给学生提供了一个广阔的空间,让他们在自己的思想世界自由驰骋,培养学生对写作的兴趣。在学生动笔之前,可启发学生激活他们的思维,而不是告诉他们写什么,怎么写,达到什么效果。对同一个材料,或从多个角度去思考,或站在不同立场去构思,或针对不同的读者对象。比如写信,就可以启发学生写给不同的人,写给父亲、母亲,写给朋友、同学,写给校长、老师等。或以不同身份谈同一个话题,比如关注环保,以县长的身份,用环保局长的角度,从普通老百姓的立场等。我就曾布置学生写过一次这样的作文,针对现在的“亲情作业”让学生畅所欲言,从学生的角度,从父母的感受,从老师的立场写一组片断作文。结果学生的思维活了,思路广了,有话说有内容写,而且学生还爱写想写,完全从被动变为主动,兴趣调动了起来,这比什么都重要。

        允许学生抒写真情。

        作文不一定要写轰轰烈烈,惊天动地,主题异常深刻,一针见血,切中时弊,一鸣惊人的事。学了那么多美文、范文,误导了我们的老师和学生,作文要求学生写不仅平凡而且伟大的事,学生也睁大双眼去寻求意义重大的事情。但大家想一想,我们都是普通人,所遇之事也大多是平常事,哪有那么多或感人肺腑,或内涵丰富,或情节曲折的事情等着我们去筛选,去挖掘,所以写实情,写真情,写平常事足矣。记得有一次一名学生写了题为“半块口香糖”的文章,大概内容是说她有一天下午来到学校,等着上课的时候看见一名男同学吃口香糖,可是这位同学把包糖的纸撕开后却只掰了半块糖塞进嘴里,把另外一半再包好放着。她当时很纳闷,以为是他很节俭舍不得吃。不一会儿,他的同桌来了,这名男生马上拿出那半块口香糖递给他的同桌,两人津津有味地吃着,看到这一幕的作者由此抒发了对同学友情的赞美。这样的文章看着就很舒服,因为写的是身边的真实,很贴近生活本身,而且学生也容易写好。我想总比一让写友情就要让同学得白血病,其他同学轮流去照顾去给人家补课;一让写亲情就要集体发高烧,还要在一个风雨交加的夜晚,去医院的路上他(她)的亲人还要摔跤,一守就是一晚上,第二天早上亲人还要在床边睡着了;一写老师就要写批改作业到深夜,或是昏倒在讲台上等模式化的作文要好得多。所以应该允许我们的学生写真情。

        注重段落训练。

        古语有曰“不扫一屋何以扫天下”,用到作文教学中亦有用武之地,即把段落写好。把一个段落,一个中心意思表达清楚,一步一个脚印地走。段首的开启,段中的过渡,段末的收束,犹如一篇文章的开合转承,依此类推,扩大布局得以成文亦不难了。我曾尝试过段落训练:一次是写人的表情,喜、怒、哀、乐各一段;一次是小组作文,第一组描写一盆海棠花,第二组描写一杯白开水,第三组描写一棵水竹,第四组描写教室的一个角落。结果激活了学生的观察力,学生认识到原来观察不必面面俱到,观察一点,认真观察皆会有收获,培养了学生留心生活点滴的好习惯,这也是写好作文必不可少的条件。

        综上所述,中学语文作文教学中还有很多值得重新思考的地方,本文作者仅作以上粗浅分析。

        参考书目:张承明,《中外语文教育比较研究》



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